New Delhi | Proportion of landless families has come down in rural parts of the country to 7.41 per cent in 2013, while the percentage of such families in respective areas has gone up in Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Uttarakhand, says an NSSO study.
The percentage of landless households had registered a downward trend in the last two decades for all the major states, except for Andhra Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Uttarakhand and Kerala, stated the NSSO report titled, ‘Key Indicators of Land and Livestock Holdings in India’ According to the study, Kerala witnessed a double increase in percentage of landless households in the last decade.
The proportion of landless families in the state rose to 9.85 per cent in 2013 from 4.8 per cent in 2003. Similarly, in Uttarakhand the proportion of landless families increased to 20.77 per cent in 2013 from 10.64 per cent a decade ago. In Andhra Pradesh, the percentage of such families was 15.93 per cent in 2013 compared to 14.33 per cent in 2003.
In West Bengal, also, the proportion of such families also marginally increased to 6.55 per cent in 2013 from 6.15 per cent in 2003. The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) conducted a nation-wide survey on ‘Land and Livestock Holdings’ in its 70th round (January 2013-December 2013) in rural India.
This report is based on the Land and Livestock Holdings Survey (LHS) conducted in the 70th round of NSS during January 2013 to December 2013. The survey was conducted only in the rural areas of the country. The survey covered 4,529 sample villages. The objective of the survey was to collect information on different aspects of land use and livestock holdings, and develop suitable indicators and critical inputs as may be useful for planning and policy formulation.
The report also stated that in the last two decades, all the major states showed a decline in the average area owned (both including and excluding landless households), except for Assam, which has shown a marginal increase in both the cases. Across the rural India, the average landholding area has decreased to 0.592 hectare in 2013 compared to 0.725 hectare in 2003 and 1.14 hectare in 1992.
In Assam which is the only exception, average landholding per family increase marginally to 0.631 hectare in 2013 from 0.551 hectare in 2003. The study further stated that the share of land owned in rural India by different social groups was 13.06 per cent for Scheduled Tribe, 9.23 per cent for Scheduled Caste, 45.68 per cent for Other Backward Class and 32.03 per cent for others.
The average area of land owned per household was 0.650 hectares for Scheduled Tribe, 0.272 hectares for Scheduled Caste, 0.603 hectares for Other Backward Class and 0.816 hectares for others.
According to the study, 3.09 per cent of households reported leasing-out of land during July 2012 to December 2012 and 3.26 per cent during January 2013 to June 2013, whereas 13.11 per cent households reported leasing-in of land during July 2012-December 2012 and 13.65 per cent during January 2013 to June 2013.
It said that the maximum area of leased-out land was covered by the terms of lease share of produce. (41 per cent during July 2012-December 2012 and 38 per cent during January 2013-June 2013). The study stated that the ground water (tube well, well etc.) was found to be the most prevalent source of irrigation, covering 67 per cent of total land area irrigated during July 2012-December 2012 and 71 per cent during January 2013-June 2013.
About 49 per cent of area was irrigated during July 2012 to December 2012 whereas 74 per cent of area was irrigated during January 2013 to June 2013. It said that the highest percentage of area was used for growing cereals, 56.21 per cent during July 2012 to December 2012 and 57.74 per cent during January 2013 to June 2013.
As per the study, the land use pattern shows that the estimated land area used for crop production was around 94.7 per cent during the season July 2012 to December 2012 and around 79 per cent during the season January 2013-June 2013. The percentage area of land used for non-agricultural purposes was 2.83 per cent and 13.85 per cent during July 2012-December 2012 and January 2013 to June 2013 respectively.
A very negligible portion of operated (cultivated) area was seen in the landless category of operational holdings and the highest was observed in marginal category of operational holdings, constituting 27.7 per cent of total operated area. The highest percentage of operational holdings were found in the marginal category of holdings (size: 0.002 hectare to one hectares) comprising of 73.17 per cent of all operational holdings.
The average area operated per holding (hectare) was estimated at 0.907 hectares. During the agricultural year July 2012-June 2013, rural India had an estimated 108.8 million household operational holdings, covering a total area of 98.6 million hectares of land.
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